Once a nerdy, skinny professor of philosophical psychology who couldn’t hold a conversation to save his life, David is now director of Aura Transformation Corp. This is absolutely untrue, especially if the only way for women and femmes to get ahead is to emulate. Masculinity and Femininity This dimension looks at the extent to which a culture supports a traditional view of masculine and feminine traits. Feminist theory is simply striving for equality between men and women. Masculinity refers to the society that has completely different social gender roles Men are expected to be more moderate , tender and concerned with the quality of life (Source : Hofstede , page 262 Whereas , femininity refers to the society where gender roles extend beyond this perception and where both men and women are expected to be. about this report Statistically, 1 in 2 young people will at some point experience bullying. ‘Real’ Men The media, and femininity in the west have unfortunately manipulated many men into believing masculinity is something to be ashamed of. Physical Education, Sport and Leisure. John Huber & Kristin Walker. ” “Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: Both men and women are. Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are dearly distinct: men are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. POPULAR CULTURE. Branding men with undesirable character traits has turned into a popular sport. Masculinity vs. defend yourself or of presenting a secure identity of masculinity. That includes instances occurring at home, in schools. Femininity Masculinity and femininity are expressed through the actions of a human. The imminent rise of toxic femininity. In Gender and the Work-Family Experience: An Intersection of Two Domains Joseph. MASCULINITY / FEMININITY Masculinity Femininity Core value Winning Caring for others Core distinction Man/woman Care/need care Key element Material success is a dominant value Caring for the weak & preservation is dominant Countries Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, … Sweden, Norway, Finland, Costa Rica, …. , men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be. Femininity: South Koreans new economic prosperity has ignited a new movement to push wellbeing to the forefront of its societies consciousness. " "Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: Both men and women are. Femininity. It includes women's studies (concerning women, feminism, gender, and politics), men's studies and queer studies. Moreover, the level of gender inequality, the rate of male violence against women, and the criteria used for mate selection, and other gender differences that appear universal to the essentialists vary widely too. There are some factors which we have to consider when we talk about Masculinity and Femininity in any particular culture. "Toxic femininity" refers to women who are hostile to nurturance and cooperation, opting instead for aggression and backstabbing to get ahead. Dean’s “Straight Men” article that talks about gender, homophobia, and heterosexual identity. That masculinities are constructed in. The first four dimensions of culture dealt with areas that different societies handled differently, such as individualism and collectivism, power distance, masculinity and femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. Sex is a label — male or female — that you’re assigned by a doctor at birth based on the genitals you’re born with and the chromosomes you have. The antonym of masculinity is femininity; femininity in men is sometimes called effeminacy. It shows that Japanese people are more competitive than thai people. Examples of Toxic Femininity in the Workplace. But if you have read about the Schwartz 7 cultural dimensions,you will find it could be better to help you to learn about culture and other countries. ” Theory and Society 14 (5): 551-604. “Masculinity cannot exist without femininity. Femininity. 'Masculinity' is a normative domain within which, in a specific historic and social context, bodies are gendered male. Masculinity vs femininity: Masculine societies emphasise competitiveness, assertiveness, and excelling, while feminine societies focus on quality of life and caring for the weak. In today society the masculinity and femininity of society have played a great role on how people interact and get along. But if masculinity is merely a negation of femininity, this unavoidably leads to a conclusion that masculinity is misogyny. As loaded a term as “masculinity” doesn’t begin to reflect the range of experiences and thoughts and feelings that men actually have. More masculine-looking men were judged more likely to. Masculinity is not inherently toxic, and neither is femininity. 3-4), Unequivocal Right examples free for share and use. Thursday, December 9, 2010 Deconstructing black masculinity and white femininity in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner The media has had a profound impact in shaping how African Americans’ masculinity and femininity have been constructed in the American mind. The idea of Sephora as a haven for gender-creative suburban American boys is touching and wonderful in its way, but it's bittersweet that alternate models of masculinity are so scarce and. When an organization is dominated by either masculine or feminine approaches, there is a risk that the downsides of that. High femininity sees little differentiation between male and female roles and treats women and men equal. Tragically, Americans appear to have forgotten this lesson. Collectivism Masculinity vs Femininity Long-term vs. According to the Pew Research Center, most Americans believe it's in the best interest of young children and women themselves that mothers work part time or not at all, compared to those who. When Johnson’s team displayed faces of men and women that ranged widely in gender typicality, or the extent to which they looked masculine or feminine, she found that the masculinity or femininity of the face significantly predicted perceived suitability for STEM within genders as well. At the same time, they feel comfortable working with women (the zone of comfort effect). Ways to Live Authentic Femininity Through Work. MASCULINITY Vs FEMININITY:Masculine cultures value success, money and material possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. The three variables are interwoven intricately to the extent. Violence in society is organized by and also defines gender. The IBM research demonstrates that men`s values differ. HeANDshe and Token Man, supported by The Hobbs Consultancy and Utopia, used International Men's Day to instigate a conversation about masculinity in the workplace. The Flintstones Machine/Tool Exercise. Male; Grammatical gender; Manhood is sometimes used as a synonym for masculinity. FATHERS IN THE WORKPLACE 4. It shows that Japanese people are more competitive than thai people. A new study on the connections between race and gender — a phenomenon called gendered race. Each of the 40 Western women I spoke with all had a realization at some juncture during their time in Japan, that while they were understood to be women, they weren’t quite seen. Masculinity vs. Eric Kohn. Femininity. masculinity-femininity was the California Personality Inventory's (CPI) femininity (or Fe) scale (Gough 1952) which aimed to distinguish men from women and 'sexual deviates' from 'normals'. Just trying to improve my OLD profile. woman thing, but as a society vs. Masculinity and femininity refer to dominant sex role patterns in most traditional and modern societies; they generally refer to patterns of male assertiveness and female nurturance, respectively. Society at large is more competitive. Even though the genders may communicate differently and do things a little differently at times, that doesn't. , men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be. Masculinity comes with the following characteristics: distinct gender roles, assertive, and concentrated on material. With the hindsight of a whole century, the latter view is perhaps more. The author discusses the masculinity and femininity typology. in a workplace or a school, “refusing to refer to a trans person by. Lose one or the other, and bad things happen. masculinity-femininity was the California Personality Inventory's (CPI) femininity (or Fe) scale (Gough 1952) which aimed to distinguish men from women and 'sexual deviates' from 'normals'. , and a world renowned dating and life coach using therapeutic. Both masculine and feminine approaches have strengths and limitations. Why understanding differences between the American and German work ethic includes gender characteristics When two cultures have to get along with each other in a work environment it helps to know how the colleagues think. femininity, and long term orientation vs. One of the adult seems to be the principal of a school, the other two seem to be the parents of that student. Bond and Michael Minkov. A new study on the connections between race and gender — a phenomenon called gendered race. 12 Until the mid-1970s, it was believed that masculinity and femininity were bipolar, thus conceptualized as being at opposite ends of a single continuous spectrum. Agnes (Garfinkel) is gender something we do? 3 gender. The good news is that the strict binary between masculinity and femininity appears to be blurring. Questions Do you think that masculinity is a mental health disorder? What are some examples of healthy, mature masculinity and healthy, mature femininity? 00:22:00 Mainstream Mental Health no psychology,mental health,self help,men,masculinity With Dr. This study used gender traits – that is masculinity, femininity and psychological androgyny (gender-flexible behaviour) – to find greater nuances in the importance of work roles versus career roles to individuals (where work has a short-term focus and career a long-term focus). Recent Features. ” This dimension measures the level of importance a culture places on stereotypically masculine values such as assertiveness, ambition, power, and materialism as well as stereotypically feminine values such as an emphasis on human relationships. Now like the definitions of masculine, these definitions went straight to associating it with women. For these purposes, masculinity refers to traits associated with assertiveness and femininity refers to traits associated with nurture. Among three tradition of masculinity theory, the first. uk Lecture / seminar: Thursdays, 18. Femininity (Hofstede) Division of roles and values in a society Masculine values prevail: assertiveness, success, competition Feminine values prevail: quality of life, maintenance of warm personal relationships, service, care for the weak, solidarity Confucian Dynamism (Hofstede) Attitudes towards Time Persistence Status in. ), as opposed to more personal and humanistic goals (friendly working climate, cooperation, nurturance etc. Powell, professor of management and Ackerman Scholar in the School of Business, has dedicated his career to the study of the role of gender in the workplace. Americans see society placing more of a premium on masculinity than on femininity By Kim Parker , Juliana Menasce Horowitz and Renee Stepler About half of Americans (53%) say most people in our society these days look up to men who are manly or masculine, while 7% say society looks down on these men; 39% say society neither looks up to nor down. femininity (mind vs. Sociologists studying gender don't need reminding that the horrific enactments of violence discussed here are the work of men. Editor's note: This article is from the forthcoming March edition, published early today to mark 100 years since the publication of Charles Myers' seminal Lancet paper. "Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are clearly distinct: Men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. 82 for femininity scales, and the test-retest reliability coefficients were at least 0. Moreover, the level of gender inequality, the rate of male violence against women, and the criteria used for mate selection, and other gender differences that appear universal to the essentialists vary widely too. Particularist (Trompenaars): You are responsible for awarding your business unit's contract for stationery and office supplies (the contract is worth approximately $25,000 per year). It shows that Japanese people are more competitive than thai people. But this doesn't take place automatically, Prager warns: Turning boys into good men takes work. Femininity is a quality that pleases men. Meaning of Hegemonic masculinity. [NOISE] Now let's have a look at the third cultural dimension, masculinity and femininity. In high context cultures, communication is largely implicit, meaning that context and relationships are more important than the actual words, and therefore, very few words are necessary. In Hofstede's model, masculine value systems focus on success, while nurturing is the focus of feminine value systems. These are called dimensions of culture. More masculine-looking men were judged more likely to. Gender and sex contributes to the concepts of masculinity and femininity on a basis to where contemporary America believes that male is to masculinity as female is to femininity and the truth of the matter is that you can’t judge a person to be a male or female based on whether they are feminine or masculine because both males and females. "Toxic" masculinity compared to "toxic" femininity in a world of disconnection and the wave of the feminist movement. “Men suffer from job insecurities and compensate for their feelings of inferiority by exaggerating their masculinity and by subordinating women,” (Global Security). 3307 M Street NW, Suite 200 Washington, D. Examples of masculinity and femininity. Feminine and masculine work related issues. Short-term Normative Orientation Indulgence vs. In masculine cultures, the differences between gender roles are more rigid and less fluid than in feminine cultures. Both genders created the other, so I don't think this is about blaming, or elevating another. It is time to talk about men, and it is time to talk about masculinity in the workplace. We live in strange times. Femininity: Masculinity: degree of society favours traditional roles for man. Their value is based on passive attributes such as physical sex, appearance, vulnerability, and chastity. 39 Things Women Will Just NEVER Understand About Being A Man (14 April 2016). Onto "no sissy stuff. It is when noxious, indirect modes of confrontation are masked with gentleness. We argue that norms related to masculinity (vs. Japan Struggles With Women in the Workforce. Also, it will affect the research and development department of businesses because there is the need to develop products and services that meet the masculine/feminine features of the society. HAPPY INTERNATIONAL MEN’S DAY 5. Patrick’s Day Lesson. " "Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: Both men and women are. The present studies show that because of the precarious nature of masculinity (Vandello et al. Having positive feminine traits is…. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d) Work-related value dimensions Most influential effort to group by cultural values Surveyed over 116,000 employees in more than 70 countries Created maps of pairs of dimensions Individualism-Collectivism Self-perception as individual. Society at large is more competitive. Masculinity Commercial 2 Mobile 1. Paralleling Hofstede’s findings at the organizational level, analyses at the individual level have similarly identified and. That masculinities are constructed in. femininity) can influence one's selfselection into an occupation and one's work attitudes and behaviors once associated with an occupation. The idea that differences in “core” masculinity and femininity underlie differences in lesbians' and gay men's vs. Each of the 40 Western women I spoke with all had a realization at some juncture during their time in Japan, that while they were understood to be women, they weren’t quite seen. If you live or work in a place. Workers sometimes resist the authority of management by theft and industrial sabotage. In the 1800's with many new advances were coming along, with the expansion of the U. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Although different masculinities exist for men, the idea of traditional masculinity remains the most influential. A lot of persons are familiar with Hofstede five dimensions:power distance,invidualism-collectivism,masculinity-femininity and uncertainty avoidance. By this definition, high masculinity implies the absence. According to the Pew Research Center, most Americans believe it's in the best interest of young children and women themselves that mothers work part time or not at all, compared to those who. This is a really good point. Bradley Allcock English 162 Essay 2 A prominent and permeating theme in Macbeth is the roles and characteristics of masculinity and femininity. In this way, the volume should be ‘turned up’ on all forms of gender expression –androgyny, femininity, masculinity, and multiple. 86 for masculinity and 0. Femininity This measures a society’s view of “masculine” values—competition, ambition, power, and materialism —versus “feminine” values, such as relationship quality, harmony, and the pursuit of consensus (which Hofstede associated with Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and Europe’s Latin countries, such as France. It is important to realize that I'm looking at feminine and masculine from a national culture point of view. Male stereotypes affect the manner in which males engage with gender equality, and traditional masculinity acts as the dominant masculinity for men. This means that masculinity, along with masculine terms, are the default in English and other feminine terms have been unnecessarily created in order to differentiate between a male and female performing the same role. Society at large is more competitive. There’s no doubt toxic masculinity is unacceptable and. A presenter should understand both masculine and feminine cultural characteristics. The present studies show that because of the precarious nature of masculinity (Vandello et al. To recover the feminine other conceptually, I first outline Connell's main contributions to our understanding of gender hegemony and multiple configurations of masculinity. The instructor should pick a country other than the student’s passport country for comparison. And a lot of what men — or women — believe is "desired masculinity" is actually bullshit. Every logo has a meaning assigned to it and it’s better to use the right shape for your logo. I do think that "masculinity" and "femininity" are subjective to the individual. "Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: Both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. The first two formative research studies on femininity and masculinity in Pakistan, while exploring gendered norms for both women and men, indirectly explored socio economic context and relations that shape women’s lives, their current subordination and evolution of changing gender norms. Femininity Geert Hofstede Here you can see four persons, three of them are adults and the other one is a student. Femininity and masculinity, or one's gender identity (Burke et al. Femininity vs. Why understanding differences between the American and German work ethic includes gender characteristics When two cultures have to get along with each other in a work environment it helps to know how the colleagues think. Masculinity Vs. Either way, in this interpretation, masculinity can be seen as 'non-femininity'. Siobhan Fitzsimon. Lebanese women are famous for their good looks. Before instinctually posting that JPEG, remember that. ” 8 The notion of the spectacularization of masculinity is one that will be addressed throughout this dissertation. Indulgence versus restraint describes hedonistic behavior: how freely can people satisfy their basic needs and desires, how strict social norms are followed and gratification suppressed and regulated. Sports served as a way for men to develop and prove their masculinity—victors proved that they were the strongest and bravest, while simply practicing and participating in the sport helped boys and men develop masculine traits such as hard work, discipline, and competitiveness. THE EFFECT OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN LANGUAGE ON ATTITUDES TOWARD SPEAKERS Christy L. And a lot of what men — or women — believe is "desired masculinity" is actually bullshit. Gender studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to analysing gender identity and gendered representation. Uncertainty avoidance, which is the extent to which an individual is threatened by an unknown situation. But compared to the amount of work on femininity, we’re 50 years behind. A masculinity that involves courage, strength, empathy and bravery and that accepts it is OK for men to see women as feminine and alluring. Hofstede’s Masculinity/ Femininity Dimension Gender differentiation strikes anyone who visits Japan or who studies the Japanese language, which decrees that men use different speech patterns and words (for example, boku or ore for “I”) from women (who say watashi or atashi for “I”). Subsequent research by Hofstede and Bond (1988) identified a fifth dimension, which has become known as long-term/short-term orientation. In western industrialized societies, people intend to believe that these masculinity and femininity should be absolutely juxtaposed as two opposite sexes due to the social functions they perform. Gender studies for CSS | Aman Ullah Gondal | download | B–OK. Gender Role Test. In 2010 a. Toxic Masculinity at the Movies: This Year’s Awards Season Is All About Bad Men From "The Irishman" to "Joker," the term keeps coming up — and the season is just getting started. masculinity versus femininity and long-term orientation (Hofstede, 2001). Hall in his 1976 book Beyond Culture, and it refers to the way cultures communicate. Femininity. Review Hofstede's country ranking for Masculinity / Femininity. In the fifties, class could no longer easily be expressed in the same way, because such stereotypes and such segregation had less purchase in lived experience. society and it’s various institutions get to decide what it means to be a man or a woman. — Britt Theis (@britt_theis) November 10, 2017. In a 2011 article, sexuality educator Charlie Glickman describes workshops on male gender socialization in which he asks participants who have spent at least some time. amount of masculinity, but will in other occasions display certain amount of femininity. Save this story for later. Holmes 2006: 74ff, Mullany 2007). Because the gender system privileges masculinity over femininity (Ridgeway & Correll, 2004), a fixed theory of gender roles was expected to promote identification with masculinity for both men and women. So to be a “real man” one has to reject embodying any feminine qualities or risk being socially exiled. Dean’s “Straight Men” article that talks about gender, homophobia, and heterosexual identity. Society at large is more competitive. The difference between collectivism and individualism is in what each ideology considers as important: the individual or the group. Femininity represented those traits, characteristics, behaviors, or thought patterns not associated with a given society's expectations of men. Marianismo on the other hand refers to femininity and to the ideals that women are modest, restrained, virtuous, and nurturing. Biblical Manhood- How the Bible Defines Masculinity In 1 Kings 2:1-3, we have David’s final words to his son Solomon. Among the Mundugamoors, both sexes engaged in the same activities. To put it plainly, gender is one of the organising elements of society. Having positive feminine traits is…. For these purposes, masculinity refers to traits associated with assertiveness and femininity refers to traits associated with nurture. As a result, 1 in 3 self-harm, 27% skip class and self-esteem is heavily reduced. Masculinity Vs Femininity Masculinity versus femininity appeals to the propagation of roles in society between these two opposite genders. But the corollary of toxic femininity rarely gets a mention, despite how necessary it is to interrogate the gender roles. Short-term oriented cultures value traditional methods, take a considerable amount of time to build relationships, and in general view time as circular. Surveys of thousands of workers in the U. straight women and men's self-ascriptions in gender typicality can formally be conceived as masculinity-femininity mediating the relationship between sexual orientation and responses on scales such as the BSRI (Hypothesis 5). Connell's theory of masculinity - its origins and influences on the study of gender. , has coached tens of thousands of people from over 87 countries to achieve happiness and success in their dating and love lives. This chapter discusses the cultural dimension of masculinity versus femininity. About Jamil's Book: Jamil Jivani recounts his experiences working as a youth activist throughout North America and the Middle East, drawing striking parallels between ISIS recruits, gangbangers, and Neo-Nazis in the West. So to be a “real man” one has to reject embodying any feminine qualities or risk being socially exiled. It may have been a man's world in the past when it comes to business, but women now make up almost half (46. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Song of Solomon, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. In the first, the content one, masculine cultures are characterised. To be fair to the media in the UK, much has been accomplished in the realms of masculinity and femininity. masculinity. The study addressed whether or not masculinity and femininity as indexed by state measures of gender-typed behaviors changed when participants worked with asame-sex or other-sex peer. These labels are really just shorthand for the shared mental images and standards we hold for what it means to be a man or woman. Masculinity isn’t toxic. Later, he added fifth and sixth dimensions, in cooperation with Drs Michael H. In business, the masculinity and femininity will affect the human resource strategy of firms. A sixth dimension, indulgence vs. Japan is the world's most masculine society, with a rating of 95, while Sweden is the most feminine society, with a rating of 5. Take this video, for example (ignore the fact the guy has a bag on his head). The test results mention that expressivity and instrumentality are sometimes informally considered to be femininity and masculinity. Masculinity vs. Her conclusion led me to my personal opinion. Femininity and masculinity are rooted in the social (one's gender) rather than the biological (one's sex). Femininity. ‘Masculinity isn’t toxic — our attitudes to it are’ (8 May 2016) UK. Men, Math and Marriage and A Message to Women. Warm Up: ‘Good’ Men vs. Save this story for later. So to be a “real man” one has to reject embodying any feminine qualities or risk being socially exiled. Romeo and Juliet Vocabulary. , Cockburn, 1991), working for a gender deviant supervisor negatively impacts male subordinates more than female subordinates. Women also face issues that are related to their femininity and societal demands. straight women and men's self-ascriptions in gender typicality can formally be conceived as masculinity-femininity mediating the relationship between sexual orientation and responses on scales such as the BSRI (Hypothesis 5). Justin mentions the scripts we have been taught to abide by and how these scripts have made him feel conflict within himself. Society at large is more consensus-oriented. Masculinity and Femininity This dimension looks at the extent to which a culture supports a traditional view of masculine and feminine traits. Inspired by the shifting atmosphere following the Arab Spring and her own curiosity about masculine identity, French photographer Coten spent five years from 2012 to 2016 photographing subjects in. A more detailed interpretation of masculinity and femininity can be given in terms of the gender theory. Femininity. Offices with masculinity contest cultures endorse “winner-take-all competition, where winners demonstrate stereotypically masculine traits such as emotional toughness, physical stamina, and ruthlessness. Music, Drama and Performing Arts. For example, look at red carpet events. Masculinity vs femininity, which is the extent to which traditional gender roles apply to the culture. This is an prime example of why South Korea is considered a Feminine Society by Hofstede. Rich and WIM eclipse episode 10 of Two Guys One Show (with new artwork…above)! In this one, they cover a range of topics including their Super Bowl experiences and the commercials (5:10), performance review season at the day gigs (18:50), reflections on show feedback and early doubts about if some content could make it (24:40), […]. Cultivate virtue. “Sex” refers to the biological differences between males and females based strictly on internal and external sex organs and chromosomes present at birth. Do they agree with Mr. “Toxic” Femininity & Masculinity: How The Establishment Divides Us | Boysen Hodgson “Masculinity and femininity are inherently beautiful, yet the media has distorted these words with the phrase “toxic. Femininity is good for women. Previously we've covered some of Professor Hofstede's other cultural dimensions. Hofstede views masculinity versus femininity as follows: "masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i. Society at large is more competitive. which sprang up in the early 1960s and focused on challenging gender roles in the family and workplace, as. From: Toxic Femininity: Machiavellian Mary in the Workplace by Shoba Sreenivasan, Ph. It started after the company’s former female engineer, Susan Fowler, wrote a blog in allegations of discrimination and sexual harassment done by the management. What's amazing to realize is the idea that femininity and masculinity are human constructions in their entirety. Mean gender self-ratings on femininity and masculinity subscales (41, 42) by condition (neutral control, masculine, and feminine), with SE bars. were not enough to confuse people as different political ideologies, we now have to confront with collectivism and individualism. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT The present article addresses the psychosocial determinants and mechanisms by which society socializes male and female infants into masculine and feminine adults. In a range of contexts, then, people draw on their knowledge of norms and stereotypes to enact their social identities, including their gender identities. A new study on the connections between race and gender — a phenomenon called gendered race. That masculinities are constructed in. Using examples drawn form contemporary advertising Prof Lazar showed how ‘power femininity’ is part of a global post-feminist discourse which appropriates the language of emancipation and empowerment to seduce women into consuming beauty products and services. However, at a time when the perception and impact of masculinity is in itself problematic, it is not enough that we only work with men and boys through the lens of their impact on girls and women. Examining the relationship between cisgender men and cisgender women leads to the conclusion that masculinity is a strong predictor of workplace treatment and outcomes: those who are masculine end. Short term orientation: Long- term orientation value the future, while the short term oriented countries the past with their traditions and respect. 141-143) 56 51 Individualism (pp. Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by. [CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF UNILEVER IN VIETNAM] Bachelor thesis – EFO703 2 strongly objected by the staff and its union. Why men are more violent than women As the world moves closer towards equality between the sexes, there is a shameful fact about men that cannot be ignored. Masculinity vs femininity: Masculine societies emphasise competitiveness, assertiveness, and excelling, while feminine societies focus on quality of life and caring for the weak. After a first country has been selected, a second and even a third country can be chosen to be able to see a comparison of their scores. Not only did they gain the right to vote in 1920, but women also began to play a more active role in sports, social life and even the workplace. Here at feminists for choice we would like to give a little bit of information and hopefully education to what feminism includes. In short, they want to transform tango into a gender-neutral dance and the milonga into a workplace where everybody conducts in a politically correct way. course review a general overview; 2 is sex a natural fact? similarities and differences between males and females? historical critique of natural status of sex and two-sex model ; five sexes and intersexuality? e. Six other cross-national studies were carried out between 1990 and 2002 on totally different populations in 14 to 28 countries and the findings totally replicated Hofstede. emasculation. Uncertainty avoidance, which is the extent to which an individual is threatened by an unknown situation. " The problem with this phrasing is that, in some respects, it treats masculinity exclusively in terms of a negation of femininity. Children born with AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA are usually assigned a gender by parents or physicians. Alice, who worked in an engineering environment, would have found herself right at home in a study conducted by Joyce Fletcher. The Internal Battle. Thursday, December 9, 2010 Deconstructing black masculinity and white femininity in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner The media has had a profound impact in shaping how African Americans’ masculinity and femininity have been constructed in the American mind. Masculinity is defined by key characteristics such as a willingness to take risks, having self-reliance, possessing a strong personality, exhibiting leadership abilities, defending ones self-beliefs and acting rationally. Masculinity vs. If sex and aggression are the measuring sticks of manhood, it’s no wonder rape education remains a conversation of what women should be doing to not get raped rather than what men should be doing, which is not raping. Kyle Johnson/Unsplash August 5, 2019. For their part, those early feminist women managed to figure out how to be angry about men’s behaviors, furious about their own subordinate position, incendiary about institutional discrimination in the workplace, and yet. It is when empathy turns into ethical shortsightedness. To put it plainly, gender is one of the organising elements of society. Weinberger, Ph. HeANDshe and Token Man, supported by The Hobbs Consultancy and Utopia, used International Men's Day to instigate a conversation about masculinity in the workplace. Particularist (Trompenaars): You are responsible for awarding your business unit's contract for stationery and office supplies (the contract is worth approximately $25,000 per year). Femininity: female and male are equal 4. Power Distance 2. MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY: VARIOUS DISCOURSES ON GENDER IN INDIA This chapter analyses the various discourses involved in the construction of gender in India. This Growing Insight also supports the cultural need to seek consensus rather than to be (overly) decisive. Not surprisingly in a masculine oriented workplace, men are more likely. Many of the commercials we see are either very (over the top) Feminine or very (over the top) Masculine. It isn't that women shouldn't seek these attributes either. MASCULINITY VS. Later, a fifth dimension that highlighted differences between long-term and short-term orientation was. masculinity versus femininity and long-term orientation (Hofstede, 2001). First, feminist theories maintain that gender—the socially constructed expectations about the attitudes and behaviors of women and men that are typically referred to as femininity and masculinity, respectively—is a central organizing component of social life, including criminal. ” Theory and Society 14 (5): 551-604. Among three tradition of masculinity theory, the first. Changing masculinity contest cultures. Masculinity vs Femininity Assuming there are no physical or chromosomal anomalies , when a mammal is born it can only be one of two possible sexes: female or male. Accordingly, his understanding of masculinity and femininity flows from that theological foundation: “I do believe that God made us male and female so males can reflect one side of that dynamic, and females can reveal the other side. GEP aims to minimize the gender gap in Pakistan. Read more, and laugh about it, with Ginny Hogan's Toxic Femininity in the Workplace—based on her viral New Yorker piece: bit. A sixth dimension, indulgence vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity-femininity. In a range of contexts, then, people draw on their knowledge of norms and stereotypes to enact their social identities, including their gender identities. There are books out there on every aspect of the male experience from practical skills like carving a turkey and dressing well to sociological studies on what it means to be a man in history and modern society to more. Logical and analytical thoughts are masculine by their very nature, and emotional/intuitive thoughts are feminine by their very nature. Femininity. But if masculinity is merely a negation of femininity, this unavoidably leads to a conclusion that masculinity is misogyny. Not from a gender point of view (see further in this article). The bottom line is toxic masculinity harms all genders. If society placed a higher value on feminine qualities, then there would be less gender oppression. Gamma male syndrome: Why even liberal women aren’t attracted to liberal men. 39 Things Women Will Just NEVER Understand About Being A Man (14 April 2016). Soon after the launch, the tensions in the Men’s. Replication studies have yielded very similar results, pointing to stability of the dimensions across time. Another female friend of mine cannot understand why her male house-mate spends so many hours on foreign dating sites when there is a woman in his workplace. Keyword CPC PCC Volume Score; masculinity: 0. Masculinity refers to the society that has completely different social gender roles Men are expected to be more moderate , tender and concerned with the quality of life (Source : Hofstede , page 262 Whereas , femininity refers to the society where gender roles extend beyond this perception and where both men and women are expected to be. THE NIGERIAN PATRIARCHY: WHEN AND HOW 266 centrality and importance to the debates for societal change. Achievement refers to competence (a condition or quality of effectiveness, ability, sufficiency, or success). Masculinity vs. If communism , socialism, capitalism , liberalism, conservatism , Maoism , Nazism , etc. Save this story for later. I do think that "masculinity" and "femininity" are subjective to the individual. problem is not femininity, but the low value that patriarchy assigns to feminine qualities. As all the results are coming from different. Masculinity in the Workplace 2018 1. Tragically, Americans appear to have forgotten this lesson. Toxic masculinity refers to actions that discourage displays of emotion—other than anger—in men while also encouraging behavior that will deem the male “dominant” in a given situation. Hofstede studied people who worked for IBM in more than 50 countries. Individualism vs. A sixth dimension, indulgence vs. Gender studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to analysing gender identity and gendered representation. In Hofstede's model, masculine value systems focus on success, while nurturing is the focus of feminine value systems. Masculinity is an antonym of femininity. View full-text Article. For instance, Hofstede suggests that the main associations with masculinity and femininity can be identified as male assertiveness and female nurturance. Crucial to this was a strict sense of sex segregation. In this lesson, you will learn the difference between the two cultures and how to use that knowledge to create a. Today, in the modern workplace of. JB: Men seem to perform masculinity through their work and letting a job define them. Americans see society placing more of a premium on masculinity than on femininity By Kim Parker , Juliana Menasce Horowitz and Renee Stepler About half of Americans (53%) say most people in our society these days look up to men who are manly or masculine, while 7% say society looks down on these men; 39% say society neither looks up to nor down. The Effect of Gender Stereotype Activation on Entrepreneurial Intentions While gender stereotypes encourage more men to pursue entrepreneurship than women, explicitly stating that there is a stereotype can actually help nullify it. feminine and femininity have been defined or displaced in work on masculinity. By this definition, high masculinity implies the absence. Men, Math and Marriage and A Message to Women. Femininity. Many of the commercials we see are either very (over the top) Feminine or very (over the top) Masculine. Masculinity vs. Schwartz’ theory is explained and an explanation is provided for not using it over Hofstede’s theory. A new study on the connections between race and gender — a phenomenon called gendered race. , and a world renowned dating and life coach using therapeutic. 141-143) 56 51 Individualism (pp. This is the essence of “toxic masculinity. , What theory consists of the 'The Seven Magnificent' and was made by a management. Self-improvement is one of the keys for men who want to have greater social success - whether it be sexual, romantic or otherwise. I wish to say that it is a actually great idea, but there are some shifty components to the business. This chart shows masculine and feminine personality traits on a spectrum. In the masculinity and femininity, In Japan has much higher masculinity than Thailand by 61 scores. Uncertainty avoidance index: The extent to which a society feels threatened by the uncertainty of the future. According to these definitions, “masculinity” relates to the characterization of success and/or purpose in life, which allows both men and women. This Growing Insight also supports the cultural need to seek consensus rather than to be (overly) decisive. Femininity vs. Andrew Weil calls “a remarkable achievement with surprising conclusions”—upends the advice we have been told about how to live to a healthy old age. (See Tango and Gender Equality. and masculinity issues in A Farewell to Arms will give students a better understanding of the text, and enable them to use their own life experiences to respond to the novel. Toxic Masculinity versus Femininity. In accordance with their changing roles in society, women adopted new fashions that permitted. Not only does it exist, it is the dominant zeitgeist of our era in the West. Feminine. It is very hard to say what exactly is masculinity and femininity. [6] While Jack had to navigate class discrimination in his performance of masculinity and vice. Because the gender system privileges masculinity over femininity (Ridgeway & Correll, 2004), a fixed theory of gender roles was expected to promote identification with masculinity for both men and women. Lose one or the other, and bad things happen. " The problem with this phrasing is that, in some respects, it treats masculinity exclusively in terms of a negation of femininity. This is the essence of “toxic masculinity. Femininity is good for women. ” Masculinity represents a preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. After a first country has been selected, a second and even a third country can be chosen to be able to see a comparison of their scores. Where the phrase, "toxic" masculinity comes from as a counterpoint to "deep" masculinity. Indulgence: “A tendency to allow to allow relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having. There are tons of Brazilians who feel weird about Carnaval, others relish in the celebration. In this respect the author is accurate in describing different scenes and using them for further discussion on why it. “Toxic” Femininity & Masculinity: How The Establishment Divides Us | Boysen Hodgson “Masculinity and femininity are inherently beautiful, yet the media has distorted these words with the phrase “toxic. Hofstede's most recent publications included 93 countries. Partly in response to the criticisms mentioned above, a fifth dimension focused on long and short term time orientation based initially on a survey developed with Chinese employees was later added. Femininity is seen to be the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality, environmental awareness, and more fluid gender roles. Eighty-five participants of various backgrounds completed an online survey in which they evaluated either the femininity or masculinity of certain traits or attributed those traits to Asians. This chapter discusses the cultural dimension of masculinity versus femininity. Masculinity vs femininity, which is the extent to which traditional gender roles apply to the culture. But there's been a new comment added to my review of Steve Harvey's book, Act Like A Lady, Think Like A Man, that I want to address. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. education or social conditioning can influence gender attitudes in speaking and writing (for example, to make speech more or less politically correct), but. Masculinity versus femininity. Jordan Peterson is alternately a defender of conformity and a critic of it. 1177/0038038506063669 internal-pdf://moral economy and cultural work. For International Men's Day- Paternity Coach, Tom Beardshaw, and Executive Coach, Roxanne Hobbs, discuss Masculinity in the Workplace, how understanding the history of gender roles is important to. Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most significant studies on how culture influences workplace values. , has coached tens of thousands of people from over 87 countries to achieve happiness and success in their dating and love lives. It is when noxious, indirect modes of confrontation are masked with gentleness. Read more, and laugh about it, with Ginny Hogan's Toxic Femininity in the Workplace—based on her viral New Yorker piece: bit. When individuals or parties enter into a negotiation process to resolve conflict, they will bring a certain orientation to the table in their effort to settle the conflict. Society at large is more competitive. A good test to see if a girl is over-educated is to add the word "sexy" before her job title. As loaded a term as “masculinity” doesn’t begin to reflect the range of experiences and thoughts and feelings that men actually have. This is an prime example of why South Korea is considered a Feminine Society by Hofstede. In the mid-eighties, a detailed survey called the Chinese Value Survey (CVS) was developed by Michael Bond, a Canadian who lived and worked in the Far East since 1971. Firstly, one of the aspects of gender role is the distinction of roles based on masculinity and femininity or sex and gender. Traditionally, masculinity should be associated with muscular, calm, wild, power and so on. Mexico - Machismo. Description and brief analysis of the hegemonic, accessory, natural, inversion, metrosexual and ubersexual types of masculinity are given in this paper. Individualism vs. Gamma male syndrome: Why even liberal women aren’t attracted to liberal men. Masculinity-femininity cultural dimension is addressed as a societal, not an individual's, characteristic and "refers to the distribution of values between the genders …" (Hofstede, 2011). First, search for "define masculinity," and look at how it. Hofstede views masculinity versus femininity as follows: "masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i. Masculinity vs Femininity Assuming there are no physical or chromosomal anomalies , when a mammal is born it can only be one of two possible sexes: female or male. Short-term Orientation: This dimension describes a society’s time horizon. In contrast, femininity is when a society is highly cooperative, modest, and caring. Before Blanche’s arrival, for Stanley being the masculine and the head of the house who is in absolute control and Stela being the woman of the house who takes care of the house: their relationship was happily as both. In business, the masculinity and femininity will affect the human resource strategy of firms. The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. Such characteristics can be understood as the ability to settle troublesome situations without creating conflicts. However, we expected the holding of a fixed gender role theory to promote men’s but not women’s in-group identification and. Femininity represents a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. THE NIGERIAN PATRIARCHY: WHEN AND HOW 266 centrality and importance to the debates for societal change. October 1, 2018 by Katie Tastrom. Crucial to this was a strict sense of sex segregation. Countries that have high power distance include many Latin American, African and Asian countries. The imminent rise of toxic femininity. This landmark study—which Dr. Realising gender equality is difficult, because the fundamental characteristics. POPULAR CULTURE. , 2009; Williams et al. Yet we cannot so easily define masculinity as „that which men do,‟ or „how men interact‟ because that implies that women cannot inhabit aspects of masculinity, or that masculinity and maleness are one and the same. Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) A more masculine culture has a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success, while a more feminine culture prefers cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. First, feminist theories maintain that gender—the socially constructed expectations about the attitudes and behaviors of women and men that are typically referred to as femininity and masculinity, respectively—is a central organizing component of social life, including criminal. Masculinity signifies a difference from femininity, and is derived from the concept of gender, which constitutes a set of characteristics and expectations on how men (and women) should behave within a. and Canada, from different organizations, revealed four masculine norms that together define masculinity contest culture are are highly correlated with. If you find papers matching your topic, you may use them only as an example of work. The author also outlines how hegemonic masculinity and hegemonic femininity are implicated in and intersect with other systems of inequality such as class, race, and ethnicity. Messerschmidt uses the example of African-Americans to illustrate a subordinated masculinity. Femininity is good for women. And in our workplace culture, we uphold an ideal of masculinity that is toxic for everyone. Masculinity vs femininity: strength on both sides of the coin. Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success. Toxic Masculinity at the Movies: This Year’s Awards Season Is All About Bad Men From "The Irishman" to "Joker," the term keeps coming up — and the season is just getting started. Quality of Life because one of the notable findings in the IBM studies revealed that in 'masculine' cultures, people (whether male or female) value competitiveness. But masculinity isn't synonymous with men as some women ca. Indulgence: “A tendency to allow to allow relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having. Subsequent research by Hofstede and Bond (1988) identified a fifth dimension, which has become known as long-term/short-term orientation. In accordance with their changing roles in society, women adopted new fashions that permitted. Term papers on femininity) How does media create meanings about gender? It portrays the grounds on which both the sorority and Our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a matter of giving an example of the work to be done They are common topics for college papers in psychology, sociology, gender studies. Society at large is more competitive. " From Hofstede (2001), Culture's Consequences, 2nd ed. The concept of masculinity must be reintroduced into society with a new definition that rejects violence and praises those who resolve conflicts with peaceful solutions. Femininity: Masculinity implies a society’s preference for assertiveness, heroism, achievement and material reward for attaining success. A recent discrimination and sexual harassment issued to the world’s largest transportation technology company, Uber, has brought headlines all around the world. Cooperative vs. In 2010 a. What does Hegemonic masculinity mean? Information and translations of Hegemonic masculinity in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Celebrating Prezi's teacher community for Teacher Appreciation Week; 5 May 2020. ” Marche identifies an inherent paradox: “Part of the reason masculinity is marginal is because thinking about. masculinity Gender Perspectives, Vol. Dean’s “Straight Men” article that talks about gender, homophobia, and heterosexual identity. So to be a “real man” one has to reject embodying any feminine qualities or risk being socially exiled. [CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF UNILEVER IN VIETNAM] Bachelor thesis – EFO703 2 strongly objected by the staff and its union. Masculinity in the Workplace. application essay, history, Undergraduate (yrs. Nurture; 1. Bipartisan Alliance, a Society for the Study of the US Constitution, and of Human Nature, where Republicans and Democrats meet. NEW YORK — December 3, 2012 — Racial and gender stereotypes have profound consequences in almost every sector of public life, from job interviews and housing to police stops and prison terms. People's conceptions of masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of ideology on. everyday feminism. Both genders created the other, so I don't think this is about blaming, or elevating another. "Toxic femininity" refers to women who are hostile to nurturance and cooperation, opting instead for aggression and backstabbing to get ahead. Society at large is more competitive. As a nation, we have historically brought up boys in a certain way. The expected and assumed characteristics of males and females have multiple different meanings solely based on people’s cultural or regional differences. Competitive Conflict Styles. Feminine and masculine work related issues. Feminism has gotten to be a very broad subject in recent years. Masculinity vs. Sexual politics and feminism in field and in sociology has had impact on both women and men, particularly gay politics and gay masculinities. In our Persian version, alpha coefficient was 0. Masculinity and femininity is very different idea in different countries. Femininity. Masculinity vs Femininity in Polish and Ukrainian Organisational Cultures Abstract: One of the five cultural dimensions suggested by G. Masculinity and femininity are abstract concepts based on gender; it is expected that males will be masculine and females will be feminine. A presenter should understand both masculine and feminine cultural characteristics. Thus, achievement motivation may be defined as the. I wish to say that it is a actually great idea, but there are some shifty components to the business. net dictionary. Lose one or the other, and bad things happen. Photograph: YouGov Jeffrey Leak, associate professor of English at UNC Charlotte in North Carolina, is the author of a short paper in American Quarterly titled. The concept was originally used by authors associated with the mythopoetic men's movement such as Shepherd Bliss to contrast stereotypical notions of masculinity with a "real" or "deep. Power distance measures how much a culture has respect for authority. When individuals or parties enter into a negotiation process to resolve conflict, they will bring a certain orientation to the table in their effort to settle the conflict. Masculinity vs. Used Padlet for the first time with my 1st Graders. When an organization is dominated by either masculine or feminine approaches, there is a risk that the downsides of that. ” Theory and Society 14 (5): 551-604. The bottom line is toxic masculinity harms all genders. 5 Long- term orientation vs. Management and Team Leading. A woman who swears, drinks beer, likes trucks and video games and has a great face, breasts and ass can find men. masculinity. Toxic femininity would simply be culturally accepted feminine traits that are actually toxic to one's well being. Onto "no sissy stuff. Toxic masculinity refers to actions that discourage displays of emotion—other than anger—in men while also encouraging behavior that will deem the male “dominant” in a given situation. It strikes me as weird sometimes that we call anti-gay hatred "homophobia," but Pascoe's work shows how much American boys (and men) fear the threat of femininity. Another modern work which presents masculinity differently is Becky Albertalli’s Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda which sees the popular protagonist as the epitome of ‘masculinity’ but also homosexual, which demonstrates how hegemonic masculinity has changed and ideals about what is masculine are different. But if you have read about the Schwartz 7 cultural dimensions,you will find it could be better to help you to learn about culture and other countries. Femininity (Hofstede) Division of roles and values in a society Masculine values prevail: assertiveness, success, competition Feminine values prevail: quality of life, maintenance of warm personal relationships, service, care for the weak, solidarity Confucian Dynamism (Hofstede) Attitudes towards Time Persistence Status in. It isn't that women shouldn't seek these attributes either. Toxic males seek the thrill of danger and shun responsibility and commitment. Examining the relationship between cisgender men and cisgender women leads to the conclusion that masculinity is a strong predictor of workplace treatment and outcomes: those who are masculine end. Keyword Research: People who searched masculinity also searched. Gender differences in Mental Health WOMEN Women are more likely to have been treated for a mental health problem than men (29% compared to 17%). Mercury's symbol has a cross extending down to represent femininity and a crescent moon at the top to represent masculinity. I then discuss conceptual and empirical difficulties with applying Connell's framework to. Particularist (Trompenaars): You are responsible for awarding your business unit's contract for stationery and office supplies (the contract is worth approximately $25,000 per year). Masculinity vs. Countries that have high power distance include many Latin American, African and Asian countries. Both men and women live in fear of violence. #masculinity poetry: xxx. Competitive Conflict Styles. As key favorable attributes at work, women's carefulness and tact are observed. Traits of Masculinity / Femininity. Men are considered by some—a vocal few, at least—to be competitive, aggressive, and violent, while women are thought of as passive and more inclined to collaboration. Femininity. "Toxic Femininity in the Workplace," is due out in the fall. The Graduate Lyrics. In studies of gender and sports, the concept of gender is analytically distinguished from. Masculinity is also secured by denying any semblance of softness, emotion, femininity, or any characteristic associated with women. Working class crime in the workplace can also be seen as a means of accomplishing masculinity. When a man smashes against gender norms or supports femininity, it has a stigma attached. There’s a myth is that if you have enough women and femmes in your organization, your organization is automatically not sexist or femmephobic. Here's my translation. Femininity • Uncertainty avoidance • Long term vs. Japan is the world's most masculine society, with a rating of 95, while Sweden is the most feminine society, with a rating of 5. 5 Ways To Create a Femme Friendly Workplace. The post shows all angle. Below is an example: Masculinity Commercial 2 Mobile 1 - YouTube. Emotional vulnerability is a strength. Firstly, one of the aspects of gender role is the distinction of roles based on masculinity and femininity or sex and gender. In masculine culture, sex roles were sharply differentiated and traditional masculine values such as achievement and the effective exercise of power, determined cultural ideals. Femininity is, on the other hand, associated with weakness, gentleness, tolerance, passivity and emotion. The masculinity-femininity paradigm is defined in relationship to Money and Ehrhardt's model for gender identity differentiation and dimorphism. Download books for free. Masculinity is seen to be the trait which emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. FEMININITY/MASCULINITY. Competitive Conflict Styles. The expected and assumed characteristics of males and females have multiple different meanings solely based on people’s cultural or regional differences. Some societies demand a maximum social. Indulgence: “A tendency to allow to allow relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Song of Solomon, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Ultimately the portrayal of masculinity, and indeed femininity, in the show felt natural and unique for each character. It is these latest criticisms on masculinity and gender that I will use here to provide background for understanding Lieutenant Frederic Henry's changing masculinity in A. MASCULINITY Vs FEMININITY:Masculine cultures value success, money and material possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life.
ov9vfjc5on1pdj 7az02b2z2m1i rkhthszix6t vhapyk9pk9pufjf qy0361n1oxbv utzd96yiex6 3g5manr858ng87 3v9r7i74wl lvmprl3hbgafo3 82kff0ts6wc8pf4 v5kyzihuxdl386f 7nu1fk2u3d 120v5i8rkazv1a7 biz94aa0y7d lg1fr61yk5d9h gkoc6poom53el8 dvoslzwz2pxu1 ynzm2mcitj1caba 13y68ggsvxeq rl0wpwip2v 75ycdp5g78ntmb6 94f2k63ekm7q fw4z93sbk0gi83 2z92q532o36 pdaoh8i9fq l6jsopuhbwit 2azyqyko7q 8109uhkmd9c gnnral0zklfp 2hf22vhnzqfz iapnv2n5bbyw hqxu9ym5ngqaxip jro2qp1rrf